Most men think of estrogen as exclusively a female hormone, but men also produce it. In fact, testosterone is the precursor of estradiol, an estrogen, and the primary female sex hormone. Testosterone is converted into estradiol via the aromatase enzyme.
A myriad of molecular-based risk assessment tests derived from serum, urine, and tissue have emerged to improve the specificity for detection and stratification of clinically significant prostate cancer.
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can be used in conjunction with the standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy to improve detection of clinically significant prostate cancers.
Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has emerged as the imaging method best able to detect clinically significant prostate cancer and to guide biopsy.
Some men with early stage (localized) prostate cancer who previously had to choose between active surveillance and aggressive treatment with a greater risk for side effects, now have a new option for treatment, focal therapy.
Prostate cancer screening involves testing for prostate cancer in men who have no symptoms of the disease. This testing can find cancer at an early stage. However, medical experts agree that prostate cancer screening should not be routinely ordered for all men and that screening can lead to both benefits and harms.
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